The Ombrone river and the human settlements:
The Ombrone characterized, from the hydromorfological point of view, the territory of the present Siena and Grosseto provinces. Along its course it collected such a large of water from the many ditches, streams and rivers to be considered navigable for a long part. Also Plinius called it "navigiorum capax" in his "Naturalis Historiae".
The oldest traces of human settlement along the Ombrone river dated from Paleolithic Superior (35.000 years B.C.), while along the Merse river they are previous.
In Vadossi site, in the Montalcino borough, just a few kilometres from Murlo, find chips of flinstone and of jaspre, used to make stone tools, can be found.
The Eneolithic traces are connected to the settlements near mining areas: a porphyry axe-hammer and a pot found in Poggio Civitate, for instance, close to the mines of Poggio Abbù and Vallerano, are definitely protohistorical.
As oar the Iron Age we have some sporadic findings in the Montalcino and Asciano area; small settlements oh the hills based on family economy, on the agricolture and on the domestic animal breeding.
During the Orientalizing and Archaic period the waterway of the Ombrone river became more important forming a connection with the coastal cities, specially with the ones near the Prile lac (Roselle and Vetulonia) and the inland areas of Grosseto and Siena (Castelluccio of Pienza and Chiusi).
Along all its course as far as Murlo and Castelnuovo Berardenga there is archeological evidence of the trade of imported products such as Corinthians, Ionic, Laconic and Etruscan-Corinthian ceramics.